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µ:   (mu) a micron, 1µ=0.001 millimetre (one-thousandth of a millimeter)

adnate:   (of gills) connected to stem by whole depth of gill, e.g. Stropharia aeruginosa

adnexed:   (of gills) connected to stem by part of the depth of the gill

adpressed:   closely flattened onto surface

agaric:   general term for a fungus with gills

Ammonia:   a 50% aqueous solution

amyloid:   turning blue-black in iodine solutions such as Melzer’s reagent

appendiculate:   fringed with remains of the veil, e.g. Lacrymaria velutina

appressed:   closely flattened onto surface

Ascomycetes:   one of the major groups in fungi containing all those producing spores in asci which are liberated by pressure

ascospores:   reproductive cell of the Ascomycetes

ascus:   (plural asci) elongated cell in which ascospores are produced

basidia:   club-shaped cells on which spores are produced in Basidiomycetes

Basidiomycetes:   a major and very diverse group of fungi,including gill fungi, boletes, polypores, clavarias, jelly fungi and Gasteromycetes, characterized by the presence of Basidia

basidiospore:   reproductive cell of the Basidiomycetes

binding hyphae:   much-branched, thick-walled hyphae without dividing cell walls which bind other hyphae together

bulb:   abrupt swelling at stem base

bulbous:   swollen into a bulb, e.g. Cortinarius auroturbinatus

caespitose:   joined in tufts, e.g. Hypholoma fasiculare

campanulate:   bell-shaped, e.g. Conocybe lactea

capillitium:   mass of sterile threadlike fibres among the spores in the Gasteromycetes which may aid spore dispersal

capitate:   with a round head

cartilaginous:   firm but flexible, as opposed to granular

cheilocystidia:   cystidia on the gill edge

chlamydospore:   a thick-walled, non-deciduous spore

chrysocystidia:   cystidia with granular contents which turn yellowish in alkali solutions

clamp connection:   a hyphal outgrowth connecting the two adjoining cells resulting from a cell division bypassing the dividing cell wall and apparently involved in the movement of nuclei

clavate:   club-like, e.g. Clitocybe clavipes

coralloid:   much-branched, corallike

cortina:   (adjective cortinate) weblike covering running between stem and cap edge enclosing the gills, e.g. Cortinarius auroturbinatus

cortinal zone:   faint remnant of cortina on stem

crescentric:   crescent-like in form

cuticle:   the surface tissue layer of the cap or stalk

cystidiole:   a sterile cell protruding beyond the spore-bearing surface

cystidium:   (plural cystidia) sterile cell, variable in shape, occurring between basidia in the sporebearing surface, or in other parts of the fruit body

decurrent tooth:   (of gill) where only the narrow end portion of the gill runs down the stem

decurrent:   (of gills) running down the stem, e.g. Clitocybe infundibuliformis

dendroid:   tree-like

dermatocystidia:   cystidia on the cap surface

dextrinoid:   turning reddish-brown with iodine solutions such as Melzer’s

dichotomously:   (branched) branching repeatedly in two

dimitic:   having two kinds of hyphae

eccentric:   (of stem) off center, not centered in the cap

emarginate:   (of gills) see sinuate

equal:   (of stem) being of the same thickness over its entire length

excentric:   off-centred

FeSO4:   solution or crystal applied to Russula stems may give significant colour change

fibril:   a small fibre

fibrillose:   covered with small fibres

filiform:   thread-like

fimbriate:   fringed

flexuose, flexuous:   undulating

floccose:   cottony, covered with cottony tufts

free:   (of gills) not connected to stem, e.g. Amanita muscaria

fugacious:   short-lived, fleeting

fusiform:   spindle-shaped, narrowing at both ends

fusoid:   somewhat spindle-shaped

Gasteromycetes:   a large, diverse group within the Basidiomycetes characterized by the basidiospores maturing within the fruit body; includes puff-balls, earth stars, stinkhorns and birds-nest fungi

generative hyphae:   thin-walled, branched hyphae with dividing cell walls, giving rise to other types of hyphae, e.g. binding hyphae

germ-pore:   a differentiated area in a spore wall which may give rise to a germination tube

glabrous:   smooth, hairless

glandular dots:   moist, sticky spots on surface of stem

gleba:   fleshy mycelial tissue which contains the spore-bearing cavities present in asteromycetes

gloeocystidia:   thin-walled cystidia with refractive, frequently granular contents

granulate:   covered with tiny particles

hyaline:   translucent or transparent, colourless

hygrophanous:   becoming darker coloured and appearing watersoaked when wet, drying paler

hymeniform:   resembling a hymenium but lacking functional basidia

hymenium:   spore-bearing surface

hypha:   (plural hyphae) a single filament, the basic unit forming the fungus (adjective hyphal)

immarginate:   without a distinct edge

infundibuliform:   funnel-shaped

innate:   inseparable, bedded in

intercalary:   between two cells

iodoform:   a crystalline compound of iodine, used as an antiseptic, with a distinctive smell (iodine)

lageniform:   shaped like a narrow-necked flask

lanceolate:   elongate and tapering towards both ends

latex:   a milky, usually white juice exuded by the gills of lactarius species when cut or broken

marginate:   (bulb) having a well-defined edge, e.g. Cortinarius amoenolens

Melzer’s Reagent:   1.5g iodine, 5g potassium iodide + 100g chloral hydrate dissolved in 100ml warm distilled water; mucronate with a short, sharp point

milk:   a milky, usually white juice exuded by the gills of Lactarius species when cut or broken

monomitic:   having only one kind of hyphae

mycelium:   (plural mycelia) vegetative stage of a fungus comprising a thread-like to felt-like mass

NaOH or KOH:   sodium or potassium hydroxide: a 10% aqueous solution

palmate:   having lobes radiating from a central point, like fingers on a hand

papillate:   having a small, nipplelike protuberance

paraphyses:   sterile hyphal filaments interspersed between the asci

partial veil:   see veil

pedicel:   a small stalk

pellicle:   a detachable skin-like cuticle

peridioles:   pea-shaped structures containing the spores

perithecia:   flask-shaped spore producing chambers found in the Pyrenomycetes group of Ascomycetes

Phenol:   a 2% aqueous solution

pleurocystidia:   cystidia on gill sides

pore:   (of polypores) the mouth of a tube

pruinose:   having a flour-like dusting

punctate:   minutely dotted or pitted

pyriform:   pear-shaped

recurved:   bent back

reflexed:   turned sharply back or up

resupinate:   lying flat on the substrate, with the spore-producing layer outwards

reticulum:   a network of raised ridges found on surface of stem or spores of some mushrooms rhizoid root-like structure

rhizoid:   root-like structure

rhizomorph:   cord-like structure comprising a mass of hyphae

ring zone:   faint mark where ring has been

ring:   remains of partial veil, only present in some Agarics (see partial veil)

saccate:   bag-like

sclerotium:   (plural sclerotia) firm, rounded mass of hyphae, often giving rise to a fruit body

scurfy:   surface covered with tiny flakes or scales

sensu lato:   in the broad sense

septate:   divided by cell walls

septum:   (plural septa) a dividing cell wall

sessile:   without a stem

seta:   (plural setae) a stiff hair or bristle

sinuate:   (of gills) = emarginated notched just before joining the stem, e.g. Hebeloma crustuliniforme

sphaerocyst:   a globose cell

sphaeropedunculate:   a cystidium swollen spherically at the tip and tapered into an elongated stalk

spinulose:   finely spiny

spore print:   deposit of spores falling from a cap placed gills or pores downwards on a sheet of paper or glass

spore:   general term for the reproductive unit of a fungus, usually consisting of a single cell which may germinate to produce a hypha from which a new mycelium arises (see ascospore, basidiospore)

sporulating:   producing spores

squamous, squamulose:   having small scales

squamule:   a small scale

stellate:   star-like

striate:   with fine lines

sub lente:   (literally under a lens) observed through a magnifying lens

sub:   (prefix) not quite, somewhat, e.g. subglobose, almost spherical

sulcate:   grooved

SV:   sulpho-vanillin: a few crystals of vanilla dissolved in 2ml conc. sulphuric acid + 2ml distilled water to give a yellow solution. A drop placed on a Russula stem discolours violet-purplish in most cases or carmine in other species.

tomentum:   thick matted covering of soft hairs (adjective tomentose)

trimitic:   having three kinds of hyphae

tuberculate:   with small wart-like nodules

tubes:   spore-producing layer in certain fungi, e.g. Boletus pinicola

umbo:   a central hump on a cap like a shield boss

umbonate:   having an umbo

universal veil:   see veil

utriform:   bag- or bladder-like

veil:   protective tissue enclosing the developing fruit body; universal veil encloses the whole developing fruit body, partial veil (of agarics and certain boletes) joins the edge of the cap to the stem enclosing the developing spore-producing surface and in some general later forming the ring or cortina (adjective velar)

ventricose:   inflated or swollen

vermiform:   worm-like

verrucose:   with small rounded warts

vesicle:   small bladder-like sac (adjective vesicular)

vesiculose:   formed of vesicles

vinaceous:   wine-coloured

volva:   cup-like bag enclosing stem base in some agarics, the remains of the universal veil

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